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Exosomes Therapy

Over 1 billion people worldwide suffer from neurological disorders:

 

  • Brain Tumors

  • Epilepsy

  • Cerebrovascular Diseases

  • Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Depression

  • Multiple Sclerosis

  • Autoimmune Encephalopathy

  • Chronic Neuropathic Pain

Emerging evidence in recent years has shown that the paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) are mediated by the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Exosomes are a subtype of EVs, approximately 30 to 100 nm in diameter, and are released by cells in all living systems. Exosomes are present in body fluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid and harbor proteins, lipids, microRNA (miRNA), and RNA. Intercellular communication has been observed in exosomes under various physiological and pathological conditions. MSC exosomes have been studied in various disease models and have shown therapeutic potential in various cancers, strokes, Diabetes, CVD, Autoimmune, Infectious, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer disease, MS, and Osteoarthritis (OA), 

MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL (MSC)
Identified by Friedensteinin 70’s, expanded by Caplan in 80’s, MSC have been shown to suppress immune responses, enhance neovascularization, and initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte growth. 

Key Advantages of Exosomes

Key Therapeutic Effects of MSC Exosomes

Exosomes The Newest Regenerative Medicine

What are exosomes?

Exosomes are so-called extracellular vesicles, or small bubbles, released from cells, especially from stem cells. They act as shuttles for certain genetic information and proteins to other cells. They allow for cell-to-cell communication, transporting molecules that are important regulators of intracellular information between close and distant cells. They carry information from place to place with different functions and purposes telling cells how and when to react.

How stem cells differ from exosomes?
Exosomes are small signaling proteins that are derived from cells. The ones used in regenerative therapies come directly from stem cells, so even though they are not stem cells, exosomes contain much of the important signaling pathways found in stem cells.

 

Why exosomes are important?

Exosomes are intelligent  tiny “bubbles” filled with precious cargo carefully packaged in lipid spheres.  Exosomes travel intact through the bloodstream and easily cross the blood-brain barrier to reach their target organs and tissues.  Exosomes help to signal important information to cells that don't communicate well with each other due to a decease process or normal aging.

How do exosomes work?

MSCs were recently renamed “master signaling cells” when it became clear that that injected stem cells themselves did not engraft and grow into new healthy organs and tissues, rather their remarkable benefits came from cell signaling!  In other words, MSCs stimulate the recipient’s own cells, including the native or resident stem cells that are found in every organ and tissue of the adult body, to differentiate and proliferate. The cells that do the healing are already there, they just need the proper signals!  And it appears that the most effective way for MSCs to deliver their signals is via exosomes.

 

Exosomes carry genetic information, proteins and messenger RNA. Because of their unique shape and content, they are able to tell cells how and when to react. Exosomes from young stem cells rejuvenate the older cells. They assist in calming an overactive immune system or modulating it to respond in a coordinated and thus more effective fashion.

 

Exosomes secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contain a diverse array of “signaling molecules” which stimulate growth, healing and tissue, and organ regeneration. Messenger RNA do not multiply themselves but can assist other cells in their proliferation by inserting missing cell information in them.

 

What are therapeutic uses of exosomes?

Patients with degenerative diseases will benefit the most from exosome therapy. Lyme disease, chronic inflammation, autoimmune disease, and other chronic degenerative diseases are primary candidates for this treatment.

 

Stem cell-derived exosomes have anti-inflammatory potential. They induce high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and therefore patients with autoimmune, inflammation, and degenerative joint disease may respond to the benefits of exosome therapy. Exosomes may also be beneficial as part of an anti-aging therapy for overall health.

 

Exosomes and Lyme Disease

Lyme Disease is a very complex disease, caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, which compromises the immune system. A combination of factors causes the onset of illness as immune system functions become disrupted leading to diminishing cellular health, immune function, metabolic function and dramatically increasing inflammation.
 
Many Lyme patients often have dysfunction of the mast cells, increasing their inflammatory response. Inflammation is a central player in most neurodegenerative diseases as well. Incorporating exosomes into a multi modality treatment regimen may help break the inflammatory cycle and provide the body with necessary cellular information to facilitate healing.

 

Can Patients with Chronic Infections and Autoimmune Diseases Benefit From Exosomes?

One of the key mechanisms controlling the direction of immune responses is a balance between specific immune cells involved in protection vs autoimmune responses, the Th17/Treg ratio. Exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells have shown to normalize the Th17/Treg ratio and bring the deviant immune response back to normal.

 

Can Exosomes Benefit Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Research has shown that exosomes can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and stimulate neuronal differentiation, neuronal growth, and suppress inflammatory processes within the brain tissue.

 

What are the benefits of exosome therapy?

The benefits of exosome therapy vary, but most patients report a reduction of the inflammatory symptoms of their chronic disease. This indicates the exosomes are assisting in the repair and regulation process. As time goes on, exosomes will also reprogram the cell function and aid in repair processes. It may take up to four-six months to see the full benefit, but they should last as long as 12 months.

 

What Lab Do You Source Them From?

We use XoGlo purified placental MSC exosomes which sourced from Kimera Labs. Kimera is GMP certified mesenchymal stem cells and FDA registered lab located in Miramar, Florida.

 

How Are the Exosomes Screened For Safety? Is There Any Risk of Viruses Being Passed on Through Exosomes?

The starting material (mesenchymal stem cells) are GMP laboratory grade, meaning they have been screened for disease, viruses and bacteria. Unlike other laboratories, Kimera goes above and beyond FDA requirements for viral testing. They test for Zika, CMV, EBV,  Hepatitis E, HBV, HCV, HIV, HHV6, HHV7, HHV8, HSV1&2, HTLV1, HTLV2, BKV, and Norovirus AFTER MANUFACTURE, under quarantine, and prior to release.  As with any other tissue bank, we test the donor mother's serum for: HIV, HTLV, Hepatitis B, C, Syphilis, and CMV.

 

How Are Exosomes Stored?

Exosomes are suspended in saline and must be kept frozen.

 

Is There Any Risk of Them Forming Teratomas?

No, as they are NOT embryonic stem cells. Exosomes do not multiply. Exosomes transfer valuable biological signals to the recipient’s tissues and facilitate the normalization of various pathological processes.

 

Is There Any Theoretical Risk of the Body Rejecting Exosomes with Them Being a Foreign Substance?

This is extremely unlikely as there are no immune markers on the surface of the exosomes. They are not cells or tissue. It may be possible to experience die-off reaction after receiving exosomes as these activate the natural killer cells to become T-Regulator cells. For this reason, we always give a small test dose before applying a larger dose.

Articles

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Prevent the Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm in Part by Suppression of Mast Cell Activation via a PGE2-Dependent Mechanism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5287411/

 

The Transitioning from Stem Cells to Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes for Treatment of Neurodegenerative Conditions
http://www.remedypublications.com/annals-of-stem-cell-research-and-therapy/articles/pdfs_folder/ascrt-v2-id1017.pdf

 

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes: New Opportunity in Cell-Free Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5071792/

 

Recent Advances of Exosomes in Immune Modulation and Autoimmune Diseases
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27259064

 

Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Contributors in Autoimmunity
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396963/

 

A Potent Immunomodulatory Role of Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Preventing cGVHD
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286548/

 

Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes on Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-04559-y

 

Exosomes: A Novel Strategy for Treatment and Prevention of Diseases
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468768/

 

Emerging Role of Exosomes in the Joint Diseases
https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/491469

 

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes as a new therapeutic strategy for liver diseases
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5519012/

 

Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes: A Possible Therapeutic Strategy for Osteoporosis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29623851

 

Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes are More Immunosuppressive than Microparticles in Inflammatory Arthritis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835945/

 

Macrophage Immunomodulation: The Gatekeeper for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived-Exosomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension?
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/9/2534/htm

 

Exosome-RNA.com Articles
https://www.exosome-rna.com/tag/autoimmune-diseases/

Other

Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

Role of exosomes in immune regulation

The multiple roles of exosomes in Parkinson's disease: an overview

Potential therapeutic applications of exosomes in different autoimmune diseases

Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as Nanotherapeutics for Autoimmune and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Videos

Extracellular Vesicles – the cells’ secret messengers

Introduction to exosomes and other extracellular vesicles – Implications for personalized and precision medicine

Mesenchymal stem cells and exosome therapy

Exosomes and Cardiovascular Function